May 132012
 

Exercise 1: Circle the correct answer (comparison)

1. My English is very                                   .

a. good                                  b. well

c. better                                 d. the best

2. I speak English very                               .

a. good                                  b. well

c. better                                 d. the best

3. I speak English                            than you.

a. good                                  b. well

c. better                                 d. the best

4. I speak English                            in my class.

a. good                                  b. well

c. better                                 d. the best

5. I’m a                       driver, I never have an accident.

a. careful                               b. carefully

c. more careful                    d. more carefully

6. I always drive                              , I never have an accient.

a. careful                               b. carefully

c. more careful                    d. more carefully

7. I drive                                than you.

a. careful                               b. carefully

c. more careful                    d. more carefully

8. I’m                                       than you in driving.

a. careful                               b. carefully

c. more careful                    d. more carefully

9. I’m                                       driver in my company.

a. more careful                    b. more carefully

c. the most careful              d. the most carefully

10. I drive                              in my company.

a. more careful                    b. more carefully

c. the most careful              d. the most carefully

Solution:

1. a                             2. b                             3. c                              4. d

5. a                             6. b                             7. d                             8. c

9. c                              10. D

 

Exercise 2: Circle the correct answer (Relative Clause)

1. This is the house                         was fired yesterday.

a. who                                    b. whom

c. whose                                d. which

2. I’m talking to a man                   house was fired yesterday.

a. who                                    b. whom

c. whose                                d. which

3. This is the man                            lived in that fired house yesterday.

a. who                                    b. whom

c. whose                                d. which

4. The man is Dave                                      house was fired yesterday.

a. who                                    b. whom

c. whose                                d. which

5. Dave is a sales person                            works at a seafood company.

a. who                                    b. whom

c. whose                                d. which

6. Dave has a wife                           works as a nurse in a hospital.

a. who                                    b. whom

c. whose                                d. which

7. His wife is Mary                           clothes were all fired yesterday.

a. who                                    b. whom

c. whose                                d. which

8. Dave has a car                             wasn’t at home yesterday.

a. who                                    b. whom

c. whose                                d. which

9. Dave has 2 daughters                            were at school yesterday.

a. who                                    b. whom

c. whose                                d. which

10. His family,                                  live in a rent house now ,were homeless.

a. who                                    b. whom

c. whose                                d. which

Solution:

1. d                             2. c                              3. a                             4. c

5. a                             6. a                             7. c                              8. d

9. a                             10. a

 

Exercise 3: Circle the correct answer (If Clause)

1. If I study hard, I                           have a good result.

a. have                                   b. had

c. will have                           d. would have

2. If I studied hard soon, I                                                 a good result.

a. have                                   b. had

c. will have                           d. would have

3. If I had a lot of money now, I                                       a new house.

a. buy                                     b. will buy

c. would buy                       d. would have bought

4. If I had had a lot of money, I                                        a new house last year.

a. buy                                     b. will buy

c. would buy                       d. would have bought

5. If I don’t go outside for shopping, I                                        a lot of money.

a. save                                   b. can save

c. could save                       d. could have saved

6. If I                                       hard, I will have a good result.

a. studies                               b. study

c. studied                              d. had studied

7. If Dave                               hard, he will have a good result.

a. studies                               b. study

c. studied                              d. had studied

8. If Dave                               here soon, he will meet Mary.

a. comes                                b. come

c. came                                  d. had come

9. If Dave                               here soon, he would meet Mary.

a. comes                                b. come

c. came                                  d. had come

10. If Dave                             here soon, he would have met Mary.

a. comes                                b. come

c. came                                  d. had come

Solution:

1. c                              2. d                             3. c                              4. d

5. b                             6. b                             7. a                             8. a

9. c                              10. d

 

Exercise 4: Circle the correct answer (Reported Speech)

1. Dave said to Mary “You are my best friend, Mary”.

a. Dave said to Mary you are my best friend.

b. Dave said to Mary she are his best friend.

c. Dave said to Mary she was his best friend.

d. Dave said to Mary he was her best friend.

2. Dave said to Mary “ I will play badmington with you tomorrow”.

a. Dave said to Mary I will play badmington with you tomorrow.

b. Dave said to Mary he will play badmington with her tomorrow.

c. Dave said to Mary he would play badmington with her tomorrow.

d. Dave said to Mary he would play badmington with her the next day.

3. Dave said to Mary “ I stayed at home yesterday”.

a. Dave said to Mary I stayed at home yesterday.

b. Dave said to Mary he stayed at home yesterday.

c. Dave said to Mary he had stayed at home yesterday.

d. Dave said to Mary he had stayed at home the day before.

4. Dave asked Mary “Are you a student ?”.

a. Dave asked Mary are you a student.

b. Dave asked Mary if you are a student.

c. Dave asked Mary if she was a student.

d. Dave asked Mary if he was a student.

5. Dave asked Mary “Can you play with me now ?”

a. Dave asked Mary can you play with me now?

b. Dave asked Mary if she can play with him now.

c. Dave asked Mary if she could play with him now.

d. Dave asked Mary if she chould play with him then.

6. Dave asked Mary “Can you go outside with me tomorrow?”

a. Dave asked Mary if she could go outside with me tomorrow.

b. Dave asked Mary if she could go outside with him now.

c. Dave asked Mary if she could go outside with him the next day.

d. Dave asked Mary if she could go outside with then.

7. Dave asked Mary “Do you know John?”

a. Dave asked Mary do you know John.

b. Dave asked Mary if you know John.

c. Dave asked Mary if she knows John.

d. John asked Mary if she knew John.

8. Dave asked Mary “What’s your name?”

a. Dave asked Mary what is your name.

b. Dave asked Mary what your name is.

c. Dave asked Mary what her name is.

d. Dave asked Mary what her name was.

9. Dave told Mary “Open the door, please!”

a. Dave told Mary open the door please.

b. Dave told Mary open the door.

c. Dave told Mary to open the door.

d. Dave told Mary to open the door please.

10. Dave told Mary “Don’t open this door, please!”

a. Dave told Mary don’t open this door please.

b. Dave told Mary to not open this door.

c. Dave told Mary not to open this door.

d. Dave told Mary not to open that door.

Solution:

1. c                              2. d                             3. d                             4. c

5. d                             6. c                              7. d                             8. d

9. c                              10. d

    Related Posts:

    May 132012
     

    4 types of Reported Speeches in English:

    Statement              Mary said “I will study at this school next year”

    Request                 Mary asked me “Please, open the window!”

    W-H Question     Mary asked me “Where will you study next year?

    Yes/No Question  Mary asked me “Will you study at this school  next year?”

     

    How to turn a normal sentence into a reported speech sentence:

    1/ Reported Speech for Statement:

    Use 4 steps in Grammar point “Reported Speech Part 1” to complete it.

    Example: Mary said “I will study at this school next year

    Step 1:   Mary said …………………………………………………………………… .

    Step 2 :  Mary said she …………………………………………………………….. .

    Step 3:   Mary said she would study ………………………………………….. .

    Step 4:   Mary said she would study at that school the next year.

     

    2/ Reported Speech for Request:

    Request                                             Reported Speech

    Vmaino                                                  to + Vmaino

    Don’t + Vmaino                                   not + to + Vmaino

    S + asked / told + O + (not) to Vo

    Method: use 4 steps above

    Example 1: Dave said to Mary “Give me your book now, Lan”.

    Step 1:   Dave told Mary ……………………………………… .

    Step 2:   Dave told Mary               him  her book                  .

    Step 3:   Dave told Mary  to give  him her book                .

    Step 4:   Dave told Mary to give him her book then .

    Example 2: Dave said to Mary “Don’t give me your book now, Lan”.

    Step 1:   Dave told Mary ……………………………………………… .

    Step 2:   Dave told Mary                     him her book                                 .

    Step 3:   Dave told Mary not to give him her book                               .

    Step 4:   Dave told Mary not to give him her book then .

    3/ Reported Speech for YES/NO question:

     

    For Yes/No question, we need one more step (step 0).

    Step 0: Turn “Yes/No question” into “normal sentence” with “if”

    Example 1: Nam asked Lan “Can you go to school with me tomorrow?

    Step 0: => if you can go to school with me tomorrow.

    Step 1: Nam asked Lan                                                      .

    Step 2: Nam asked Lan if she                                      him                           .

    Step 3: Nam asked Lan if she could go                           him                       .

    Step 4: Nam asked Lan if she could go to school with him the next day.

    Example 2: Dave asked Mary “Do you like football?

    Step 0: =>  If you like football.

    Step 1: Dave asked Mary                                                   .

    Step 2: Dave asked Mary if she                                       .

    Step 3: Dave asked Mary if she liked football                 .

    Step 4: Dave asked Mary if she liked football .

     

    4/ Reported Speech for W-H question:

    “How, what, why, when, when, who…”

    Example 1: Dave asked Mary “Where will you go tomorrow?

    Step 0:  => “Where you will go tomorrow?

    Step 1: Dave asked Mary                                                                            .

    Step 2: Dave asked Mary where she                                                   .

    Step 3: Dave asked Mary  where she would go                                  .

    Step 4: Dave asked Mary where she would go the next day.

    Example 2:  Dave asked Mary “What do you like?

    Step 0: => “What you like

    Step 1: Dave asked Mary                                                     .

    Step 2: Dave asked Mary what she                               .

    Step 3: Dave asked Mary  what she liked                    .

    Step 4: Dave asked Mary what she liked                   .

     

    Exercise: Turn into reported speech

    1.         I said to Mary “You are beautiful”.

    Step 1:                                                                                                                

    Step 2:                                                                                                                 

    Step 3:                                                                                                                 

    Step 4:                                                                                                                 

    2.         Dave said to me “I will go to play football with you tomorrow”.

    Step 1:                                                                                                                 

    Step 2:                                                                                                                 

    Step 3:                                                                                                                 

    Step 4:                                                                                                                 

    3.         I said to Mary “help me do this exercise, please”.

    Step 1:                                                                                                                 

    Step 2:                                                                                                                  

    Step 3:                                                                                                                 

    Step 4:                                                                                                                 

    4.         Mary said to me “Don’t help me do this exercise, please”.

    Step 1:                                                                                                                 

    Step 2:                                                                                                                 

    Step 3:                                                                                                                 

    Step 4:                                                                                                                 

    5.         Mary said to me “Are you happy with your work?”

    Step 0:                                                                                                                

    Step 1:                                                                                                                 

    Step 2:                                                                                                                 

    Step 3:                                                                                                                 

    Step 4:                                                                                                                  

    6.         Mary said to me “Can you help me?”

    Step 0:                                                                                                                 

    Step 1:                                                                                                                 

    Step 2:                                                                                                                 

    Step 3:                                                                                                                 

    Step 4:                                                                                                                 

    7.         Mary said to me “Do you know Mr John?”

    Step 0:                                                                                                                 

    Step 1:                                                                                                                 

    Step 2:                                                                                                                

    Step 3:                                                                                                                 

    Step 4:                                                                                                                 

    8.         Mary said to me “What will you do tomorrow?”

    Step 0:                                                                                                                

    Step 1:                                                                                                                

    Step 2:                                                                                                                

    Step 3:                                                                                                                 

    Step 4:                                                                                                                 

    9.         Mary said to me “How do you go to school?”

    Step 0:                                                                                                                 

    Step 1:                                                                                                                 

    Step 2:                                                                                                                 

    Step 3:                                                                                                                 

    Step 4:                                                                                                                

    10.      Mary said to me “How did you go to school yesterday?”

    Step 0:                                                                                                                

    Step 1:                                                                                                                 

    Step 2:                                                                                                                

    Step 3:                                                                                                               

    Step 4:                                                                                                                  

    Solution:

    1.         I said to Mary “You are beautiful”.

    Step 1:   I said to  Mary                                             .

    Step 2:   I said to Mary she                                      .

    Step 3:   I said to Mary she was                              .

    Step 4:   I said to Mary she was beautiful          .

    2.         Dave said to me “I will go to play football with you tomorrow”.

    Step 1:   Dave said to me

    Step 2:   Dave said to me he                                                              me                              .

    Step 3:   Dave said to me he would go to play                 me                              .

    Step 4:   Nam said to me he would go to play football with me the next day

    3.         I said to Mary “help me do this exercise, please”.

    Step 1:   I told Mary                                                               .

    Step 2:   I told Mary                me                                          .

    Step 3:   I told Lan to help me do                                         .

    Step 4:   I told Lan to help me do that exercise         .

    4.         Mary said to me “Don’t help me do this exercise, please”.

    Step 1:   Mary told me                                                                                   .

    Step 2:   Mary told me                                   her                                         .

    Step 3:   Mary told me not to help her do                                                  .

    Step 4:   Mary told me not to help her do that exercise       .

    5.         Mary said to me “Are you happy with your work?”

    Step 0:   => “if you are happy with your work”.

    Step 1:    Mary told me                                                                       .

    Step 2:    Mary told me If I                                         my work .

    Step 3:    Mary told me if I was                                 my work .

    Step 4:    Mary told me if I was happy with my work.

    6.         Mary said to me “Can you help me?”

    Step 0:    If you can help me.

    Step 1:     Mary told me                                                           .

    Step 2:     Mary told me if if I                                                 her.

    Step 3:     Mary told me if I could help her.

    Step 4:     Mary told me if I could help her.

    7.         Mary said to me “Do you know Mr John?”

    Step 0:     if you know Mr John.

    Step 1:      Mary told me                                                           .

    Step 2:      Mary told me if I                                         Mr John.

    Step 3:      Mary told me if I knew Mr John.

    Step 4:      Mary told me if I knew Mr John.

    8.         Mary said to me “What will you do tomorrow?”

    Step 0:      what you will do tomorrow

    Step 1:       Mary told me                                                           .

    Step 2:       Mary told me what I                                             .

    Step 3:       Mary told me what I would do                          .

    Step 4:       Mary told me what I would do the next day.

    9.         Mary said to me “How do you go to school?”

    Step 0:       How you go to school.

    Step 1:        Mary told me how                                                 .

    Step 2:        Mary told me how I                                               .

    Step 3:        Mary told me how I went to school.

    Step 4:        Mary told me how I went to school.

    10.      Mary said to me “How did you go to school yesterday?”

    Step 0:        How you went to school yesterday.

    Step 1:         Mary told me                                                                       .

    Step 2:         Mary told me  how I                                                          .

    Step 3:         Mary told me how I had gone                                       .

    Step 4:         Mary told me how I had gone to school yesterday.

      Related Posts:

      May 132012
       

      Reported Speech:

      Reported Speech is used to report what other people say.

      Ex:

      Normal sentence: Dave said to me I will help you do this exercise tomorrow.

      Reported speech:Dave said to me he would help me do that exercise the next day.

       

      4 factors in Reported Speech:

      1/ Eliminate “…”

      Normal sentence with “…”

      Reported speech without “…”

      2/  Asker and listener:

      Normal sentence: Asker “I” and listener “you”

      Reported speech: “I” => “he” and “you” => “me”

      3/ The tense:

      Normal sentence: the future tense “will”

      Reported speech: the past tense “would”

      4/ Time word and “this, that, these, those”:

      Normal sentence: “this” and “tomorrow”

      Reported speech: “this” => “that” and “tomorrow” => “the next day”

       

      How to turn a normal sentence into a reported speech sentence:

      Turn a normal sentence into a reported speech = change 4 factors above

      Factor 1: eliminate “…”

      Ex: David said to me “I will help you do this exercise tomorrow”.

      =>  David said to me ……………………………………………………………… .

       

      Factor 2: change “asker” and “listener”

      Ex:  Dave said to meI will help you do this exercise tomorrow”.

      => Dave said to me  he  ……….. me ……………………………………….

      Dave = “I” => turn “I” into “he”

      Me = “you”  => turn “you” into “me”

      Subject, Object and Adjpossessive:

      Pronoun-S

      Pronoun-O

      Adjposssesive

      I

      you

      he

      she

      we

      they

      it

      me

      you

      him

      her

      us

      them

      it

      my

      your

      his

      her

      our

      their

      its

      Specific situaion:

      The name of the man is replaced by “he” or “him”

      The name of the woman is replaced by “she” or “her”

       

      Factor 3: Turn all tenses into the past tenses.

      Ex:  Nam said to me “ I will help you do this exercise tomorrow”.

      => Nam said to me he would help me do ………………………………. .

      Future = “will” => Past = “would”

      7 past tenses of 7 basic tenses in English:

      Tense

      Normal

      Reported Speech

        Simple FutureSimple PresentPresent ContinuousPresent PerfectSimple PastPast Continuous

      Past Perfect

      S + will + V0+ OS + V1s,es+ OS + am/is/are + Ving+ OS + has/have + V3ed+ OS + V2ed+ OS + was,were + Ving + O

      S + had + V3ed + O

      S + would + V0 + OS + V2ed+ OS + was/were + Ving+ OS + had + V3ed+ OS + had + V3ed+ OS + had + been + Ving+ OS + had + V3ed + O

       

      Factor 4: time word and “this, that, these, those”…

      Ex: Nam said to me “ I will help you do this exercise tomorrow”.

      => Nam said to me he would help me do that exercise the next day.

      this => that               and          tomorrow => the next day

      Some frequent words:

      Now  => then

      Tomorrow  => the next day / the following day

      Next  => the next

      Yesterday  => the day before /  the previous day

      Ago  => before: 2 days ago => 2 days before

      Last + time  => the + time + before

      Here  => there

      This => that

      These => those

       

      Example 2: I said to Dave “I saw you in this coffee shop yesterday”

      Step 1: I said to Dave ……………………………………………………………… .

      Eliminate “…”

      Step 2: I said to Dave I ………… him …………………………………………. .

      “I” = “I” => turn “I” into “I”

      “Dave”  = “you” => turn “you” into “him”

      Step 3: I said to Dave I had seen him ……………………………………… .

      Simple Past into Past Perfect => “saw” into “had seen”

      Step 4: I said to Dave I had seen him in that coffee shop the day before.

      this => “that”    and     “yesterday” => “the day before”

       

      Exercise: Turn into Reported Speech with 4 steps above:

      1.         Dave said to Mary “I will go to school tomorrow”.

      Step 1:                                                                                                                   

      Step 2:                                                                                                                   

      Step 3:                                                                                                                   

      Step 4:                                                                                                                   

      2.         Mary said to Dave “I will go to school tomorrow”.

      Step 1:                                                                                                                   

      Step 2:                                                                                                                   

      Step 3:                                                                                                                   

      Step 4:                                                                                                                   

      3.         Mary said to Dave “I will go to school with you tomorrow”.

      Step 1:                                                                                                                   

      Step 2:                                                                                                                   

      Step 3:                                                                                                                   

      Step 4:                                                                                                                   

      4.         Mary said to me “I will go to school with you tomorrow”.

      Step 1:                                                                                                                   

      Step 2:                                                                                                                   

      Step 3:                                                                                                                   

      Step 4:                                                                                                                   

      5.         Mary said to Dave “I went to school with you yesterday”.

      Step 1:                                                                                                                   

      Step 2:                                                                                                                   

      Step 3:                                                                                                                   

      Step 4:                                                                                                                   

      Solution:

      1.         Dave said to Mary “I will go to school tomorrow”.

      Step 1: Dave said to Mary                                                                         .

      Step 2: Dave said to Mary he                                                                   .

      Step 3: Dave said to Mary he would go to school                              .

      Step 4: Dave said to Mary I would go to school the next day           .

      2.         Mary said to Dave “I will go to school tomorrow”.

      Step 1: Mary said to Dave                                                              .

      Step 2: Mary said to Dave she                                                       .

      Step 3: Mary said to Dave she would go to school                              .

      Step 4: Mary said to Dave she would go to school the next day      .

      3.         Mary said to Dave “I will go to school with you tomorrow”.

      Step 1: Mary said to Dave                                                                                .

      Step 2: Mary said to Dave she                                       him                           .

      Step 3: Mary said to Dave she would go to school with him                              .

      Step 4: Mary said to Dave she would go to school with him the next day .

      4.         Mary said to me “I will go to school with you tomorrow”.

      Step 1: Mary said to me                                                                                          .

      Step 2: Mary said to me she                                               me                              .

      Step 3: Mary said to me she would go to school with me                              .

      Step 4: Mary said to me she would go to school with me the next day      .

      5.         Mary said to Dave “I went to school with you yesterday”.

      Step 1: Mary said to Dave                                                                                .

      Step 2: Mary said to Dave she                                       him                           .

      Step 3: Mary said to Dave she had gone to school with him                                .

      Step 4: Mary said to Dave she had gone to school with him the day before .

        Related Posts:

        May 132012
         

        Conditional Clause, If Clause

        Conditional Clauses or If Clauses is used to express that an action is possible or impossible to happen if another action is possible or impossible to happen. There are 3 types of Conditional Clause:

         Type 1: Real Condition in the future
        Function

        An action/ result is possible to happen in the future because another action is possible to happen at the present or in the future.

        Structure

        If   S   + V1s,es , S + will ( can, may, should) + Vo

        Example If the weather is good this afternoon, I will playfootball.(this afternoon doesn’t happen and the weather is possible to be good this afternoon and I’m possible to play football this afternoon).
         Type 2: Unreal Condition in the future
        Function

        An action/ result is impossible to happen in the future because another action is impossible to happen at the present.

        Structure

        If   S   + V2ed  ,  S + would ( could, might, should ) + Vo

        Example If I had a lot of money now, I would buya new house.( I don’t have the money now and I wish I have the money now. It’s impossible at the present that I have a lot of money now)
         Type 3: Unreal Condition in the past
        Function

        An action/ result is impossible to happen in the past because another action doesn’t happen in the past.

        Structure If   S   + had + V3ed , S + would ( could, migh, should ) have + V3ed
        Example

        If I had stayed there yesterday, I would have met him.

        (It’s impossible that I stayed there yesterday, then It’s impossible that I could meet him yesterday)

         

        How to write a correct If Clause:

        If Clause always has 2 sentences: Main Clause sentence and If Clause sentence:

        Example 1: If you speak English everyday, you                    English very well.

        a. will speak                         b. will speaks

        c. would speak                    d. would have spoken

        Define what type of If Clause we should use:

        In this sentence: “If you speak” = If + S + V1s,es => If Clause type 1

        The correct answer is “a. will speak”

         

        Example 2: If you               English everyday, you will speak English very well.

        a. speak                                 b. speaks

        c. spoke                                 d. had spoken

        Define what type of If Clause we should use:

        In this sentence: “you will speak” =  S + will + Vo => If Clause type 1

        The correct answer is “a. speak”

         

        Exercise: Circle the correct answer

        1.  If I study hard, I                                             a good result

        a. will have                           b. will has

        c. would have                      d. would have had

        2.  If you came here soon, you                                                him.

        a. will meet                          b. will meets

        c. would meet                      d. would have met

        3.  If I was you, I                                                  very hard.

        a. will study                          b. will studies

        c. would study                     d. would have studied

        4.  If I had studied hard, I                                              the exam.

        a. will pass                            b. will passes

        c. would pass                       d. would have passed

        5.  If I had enough money, I                                         a new bike.

        a. will buy                             b. will buys

        c. would buy                        d. would have bought

        6.  If I                                              hard, I will have a good result

        a. study                                  b. studies

        c. studied                              d. had studied

        7.  If you                                        here soon, you would meet him.

        a. come                                  b. come

        c. came                                  d. had come

        8.  If I                                              you, I would study very hard.

        a. be                                       b. was

        c. were                                  d. had been

        9.  If I                                              hard, I would have passed  the exam.

        a. study                                  b. studies

        c. studied                              d. had studied

        10. If I                                            enough money, I would buy a new bike.

        a. have                                   b. has

        c. had                                     d. had had

        Solution:

        1. a                             2. c                              3. c                              4. d

        5. c                              6. a                             7. c                              8. b

        9. d                             10. c

          Related Posts:

          May 132012
           

          Relative Clause:

          Relative Clause is used for connecting 2 sentences (2 clauses) together into 1.

          Ex: – I like this book. It contains a lot of important information.

          –       I like this book which contains a lot of important information.

          this book = it = which

           

          Relative Pronoun in Relative Clause:

          Relative Pronoun

          Use

               who to replace “S” or “O” for people (oftently for “S”)
               whom to replace “S” or “O” for people (oftently for “O”)
               which to replace “S” or “O” for thing
               whose possession for people or thing
               that to replace “who, whom, which” in Defining Relative Clause

          Ex: – I like the woman. She studies at the same class with me.

          –       I like the woman who/that studies at the same class with me.

          Ex: – Kangaroo is an animal. It lives in Autraslia.

          –       Kangaroo is an animal which/that lives in Autraslia.

          Ex: – Do you know the boy? His father is a doctor.

          –       Do you know the boy whose father is a doctor.

           

          2 types of Relative Clause:

          Defining relative clause

          Gives main information about a thing or a person. We can’t understand this sentence without this information:

          Ex: – I like the woman. She studies at the same class with me.

          –       I like the woman who studies at the same class with me.

          (If I don’t say “who studies at the same class with me”, then you don’t know which woman I talk about)

          Non-defining relative clause

          Give extra information about a thing or a person. We still understand this sentence without this information.

          Notice: we use the commas “,” to define non-difining relative clause.

          Ex: – I live in Paris. Paris has a wonderful view from Effel Tower.

          –       I live in Paris, which has a wonderful view from Effel Tower.

          (Everyone knows where Paris is, “which has a wonderful view from Effel Tower” is extra information and we still understand this sentence without it.)

           

          Relative Adverbs:

          A relative Adverb = a preposition + which

          Relative Adverb

          Relative Clause

          Use

          When in/on which to replace time word
          Where in/at which to replace place word
          Why for which to replace a reason

          Ex: – This is the shop. I bought a new book in this shop.

          –       This is the shop in which I bought a new book.

          or    This is the shop where I bought a new book.

           in this shop = in which = where

           

          How to write Relative Clause:

          Example 1:   I   know   Mr John.   He  teaches me English.

          Step 1: Find the words to show relationship between 2 sentences and replace it by a relative word.

          Mr John = he

          He = S     =>   “he” replaced by “who”

          Then, write the sencond sentence with “who” at the first position:

          Who teaches me English

          Step 2: Use “who teaches me English” right behind the word with the same meaning.

          I   know   Mary who   teaches me English.

           

           

          Example 2: Mary   is   beautiful.   She is my classmate.

          Step 1: Mary   is   beautiful.   She   is   my   classmate.

          who   is   my   classmate.

          Step 2: Mary , who   is   my   classmate , is   beautiful.

           

          Example 3: Mary   is   intelligent.   I   like   her   very   much.

          Step 1: Mary   is   intelligent.   I   like   her   very   much.

          whom  I   like  very   much.

          Step 2: Mary , whom  I   like  very   much,  is   intelligent.

           

          Exercise 1: Connect 2 sentences into one by using Relative Clause

          1.           This is Mr John. He is my English teacher.

          Step 1:                                                                                                                  

          Step 2:                                                                                                                  

          2.           John plays football very well. He will get married next week.

          Step 1:                                                                                                                  

          Step 2:                                                                                                                  

          3.           John plays football very well. I saw him in library yesterday.

          Step 1:                                                                                                                  

          Step 2:                                                                                                                  

          4.           I  like  the movie. It makes me laugh a lot.

          Step 1:                                                                                                                  

          Step 2:                                                                                                                  

          5.           I  like Viet Nam. People are very friendly in Viet Nam.

          Step 1:                                                                                                                  

          Step 2:                                                                                                                  

          6.           I  like Viet Nam. People are very friendly there.

          Step 1:                                                                                                                  

          Step 2:                                                                                                                  

          7.           Viet Nam is a beautiful country. I live in Viet Nam.

          Step 1:                                                                                                                  

          Step 2:                                                                                                                  

          8.           I saw the man. He was in my party yesterday.

          Step 1:                                                                                                                  

          Step 2:                                                                                                                  

          9.           I know John. His children are my students.

          Step 1:                                                                                                                  

          Step 2:                                                                                                                  

          10.       John is very famous. His stories always attract a lot of people.

          Step 1:                                                                                                                  

          Step 2:                                                                                                                  

          Solution:

          1. This is Mr John who is my English teacher.

          2. John , who will get married next week, plays football very well.

          3. John , whom I saw in library yesterday , plays football very well.

          4. I like the movie which makes me laugh a lot.

          5. I like Viet Nam where/in which people are very friendly.

          6. I like Viet Nam where/in which people are very friendly.

          7. Viet Nam , where/in which I live, is a beautiful country.

          8. I saw the man who was in my party yesterday.

          9. I know John whose children are my students.

          10. John , whose stories always attract a lot of people , is very famous.

           

          Exercise 2: Circle the correct answer

          1.  I know Mr Jean                           is my professor in University.

          a.  who                                   b.  whom

          c.  whose                               d.  which

          2.  I know Mr Jean                           children were kidnapped yesterday.

          a.  who                                   b.  whom

          c.  whose                               d.  which

          3.  I like your commic book                                  can help me relax a lot.

          a.  who                                   b.  whom

          c.  whose                               d.  which

          4.  This is the big elephant                        I saw in the zoo last week.

          a.  who                                   b.  whom

          c.  whose                               d.  which

          5.  Many people like food                                      comes from local producers.

          a.  who                                   b.  whom

          c.  whose                               d.  which

          6.  Many people like food                                      comes from local producers.

          a.  who                                   b.  whom

          c.  whose                               d.  that

          7.  Many people like food                                      comes from local producers.

          a.  which                               b.  that

          c.  who                                   d.  which/that

          8.  Many people like people                                  are very friendly.

          a.  which                               b.  that

          c.  who                                   d.  who/that

          9.  Parents                             children are at school must work longer hours for tuition.

          a.  who                                   b.  whom

          c.  whose                               d.  that

          10. “Bánh xèo” is a traditional dish                                appeared in Viet Nam more than 1000 years ago.

          a.  who                                   b.  whom

          c.  whose                               d.  that

          Solution:

          1. a                             2. c                              3. d                             4. d

          5. d                             6. d                             7. d                             8. d

          9. c                              10. d

            Related Posts:

            May 132012
             

            The same and the same as, like and alike

            Noun   +   V    +    the same as   +   Noun

            Noun and Noun   +   V   +   the same

            Noun    +    V     +    like    +   Noun

            Noun  and Noun   +   V   +   alike

            Different between “the same, the same as” and “like, a like”:

            “The same, the same as” show 2 things with the exact similarity for 100 %.

            “Like, a like” show 2 things with general similarity not for 100 %.

            Ex: – This phone is the same as that phone.

            –       This phone and that phone are the same.

            –       This car is like that car over there.

            –       This car and that car over there are a like.

            “Like and “be similar to”:

            Like = be similar to

            Ex: My car is like your car.

            =   My car is similar to your car.

            Like is also a verb with the meaning “love, enjoy”:

            Ex: I like your car.

            =   I love your car.

            Exercise: Circle the correct answer

            1. My laptop is                                  your laptop.

            a. the same                           b. the same as

            2. My laptop and your laptop look                                  .

            a. the same                           b. the same as

            3. My laptop and your laptop have                                 color.

            a. the same                           b. the same as

            4. My laptop has                              color as your laptop.

            a. the same                           b. the same as

            5. We bought our laptops at                                 store.

            a. the same                           b. the same as

            6. My book is                                    your book.

            a. like                                     b. alike

            7. My book looks                             your book.

            a. like                                     b. alike

            8. My book and your book look                          .

            a. like                                     b. alike

            9. Our books look                            .

            a. like                                     b. alike

            10. I                             your house, it’s so beautiful.

            a. like                                     b. alike

            Solution:

            1. b                             2. a                             3. a                             4. a

            5. a                             6. a                             7. a                             8. b

            9. b                             10. a

              Related Posts:

              May 132012
               

              Comparative

              S + V + as + Adv + as + N/ProN

              S + V + Advshort + er + than + N/ProN

              S + V + more Advlong + than + N/ProN

              S + V + less + Adv + than + N/ProN

              Ex: – Mary drives car as slowly as Dave

              –       Mary drives car slowlier than Dave.

              –       Mary drives car more carefully than Dave.

              –       Mary drives car less carefully than Dave.

               

              Superlative

              S + V + (the) Advshort + est …

              S + V + (the) most + Advlong …

              S + V + (the) least + Adv …

              Ex: – Mary drives car (the) slowliest in her family.

              –       Mary drives car (the) most carefully in her family.

              –       Mary drives car (the) least carefully in her family.

               

              Rules for Adv comparison:

              Short Adverb

              Adv with 1 syllable                        fast => faster

              Adv with 2 syllables ending in “y”

              Turn “y” into “i”                             simply => simplier

              Long Adverb

              Adv with 3 syllables or                         more carefully => more carefully

               

              Irregular Adverb:

              Some Adverbs (Advirregular) don’t follow the above rules :

              Adj

              Comparative

              Superlative

              Well

              Better

              best

              Badly

              Worse

              worst

              Far

              farther

              further

              farthest

              furthest

              Little

              Less

              least

              Much

              More

              most

              Late

              Later

              latest

              Example: Comparison with “well”

              Correct:   I speak English better  than you.

              Incorrect:   I speak English  weller than you.

              Example: Comparisom with “badly”

              Correct:   I speak English worse  than you.

              Incorrect:   I speak English badlier than you.

              Exercise: Circle the correct answer

              1. Dave is very                             when he drives car.

              a. careful                               b. carefully

              c. more careful                    d. more carefully

              2. Dave is a                                               driver, he never has an accident.

              a. careful                               b. carefully

              c. more careful                    d. more carefully

              3. Dave drives car very                                     , he never has an accident.

              a. careful                               b. carefully

              c. more careful                    d. more carefully

              4. Dave is                                      than me when we drive car.

              a. more careful                    b. more carefully

              c. the most careful              d. (the) most carefully

              5. Dave is                                      driver in his company.

              a. more careful                    b. more carefully

              c. the most careful              d. (the) most carefully

              6. Dave drives car                                   than me.

              a. more careful                    b. more carefully

              c. the most careful              d. (the) most carefully

              7. Dave drives car                                               in his company.

              a. more careful                    b. more carefully

              c. the most careful              d. (the) most carefully

              8. My English is very                              .

              a. good                                  b. well

              c. better                                 d. the best

              9. Dave speaks English very                            .

              a. good                                  b. well

              c. better                                 d. the best

              10. Dave speaks English                                               than me.

              a. good                                  b. well

              c. better                                 d. the best

              Solution:

              1. a                             2. a                             3. b                             4. a

              5. c                              6. b                             7. d                             8. a

              9. b                             10. c

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                May 132012
                 

                Comparative

                 S + V + as + Adj + as + N/ProN                 Mary is as tall as Dave

                S + V + Adjshort + er + than + N/ProN       Dave is taller than Mary

                S + V + more Adjlong + than + N/ProN      Mary is more beautiful than Dave

                S + V + less + Adj + than + N/ProN            Mary is less tall than Dave

                 

                Superlative:

                S + V + the Adjshort+ est …              Dave is the tallest student in his class

                S + V + the most + Adjlong …           Mary is the most beautiful girl in her class

                S + V + the least + Adj …                  Dave is the least tall student in his class

                 

                Rules for Adj comparison:

                Short Adjective

                Adj with 1 syllable                                                                fast => faster

                Adj with 1 syllable ending in consonant-vowel-consonant

                = > Double the last consonant                                       big => bigger

                Adj with 2 syllables ending in “y”

                Turn “y” into “i”                                                          happy => happier

                Long Adjective

                Adj with 2 syllables not ending in “y”                       careful => more careful

                Adj with 3 syllables                                                 beautiful => more beautiful

                 

                Irregular Adjective:

                Adj

                Comparative

                Superlative

                Good

                better

                best

                Bad

                worse

                worst

                Far

                farther

                further

                farthest

                furthest

                little
                few

                less

                least

                much
                many

                more

                most

                Example: Comparison with “good”

                Correct:   My English is better  than your English.

                Incorrect:   My English is gooder than your English.

                Example: Comparison with “bad”

                Correct:   My English is worse  than your English.

                Incorrect:   My English is badder than your English.

                Double Comparison:

                The comparative + S + V , the comparative + S + V

                Ex: the harder we study, the better our exams are. Continue reading »

                  Related Posts:

                  May 132012
                   

                  Exercise 1: Cirlce the correct answer (Prep + time)

                  1. Dave will go to the cinema                   the evening.

                  a. in                b. on

                  c. at                d. no preposition

                  2. Dave will go to the cinema                   Sunday.

                  a. in                b. on

                  c. at                d. no preposition

                  3. Dave will go to the cinema                   Sunday evening.

                  a. in                b. on

                  c. at                d. no preposition

                  4. Dave will go to the cinema                   weekend.

                  a. in                b. at

                  c. this             d. b & c are correct

                  5. Dave will go abroad for studying                   summer.

                  a. in                b. at

                  c. this             d. a & c are correct.

                  6. Dave will go abroad for studying                   December.

                  a. in                b. on

                  c. at                d. no preposition

                  7. Dave often goes to school                     7 a.m.

                  a. in                b. on

                  c. at                d. no preposition

                  8. Dave often stays up late                        night.

                  a. in                b. on

                  c. at                d. no preposition

                  9. Dave always goes to school                 time.

                  a. in                b. on

                  c. at                d. no preposition

                  10. Dave graduated from college            2010.

                  a. in                b. on

                  c. at                d. no preposition

                  Solution:

                  1. a                 2. b                 3. b                 4. d

                  5. d                 6. a                 7. c                  8. c

                  9. b                 10. a

                   

                  Exercise 2: Circle the correct answer (Prep + place)

                  1. Dave is standing                                      the bus stop now.

                  a. in                b. on

                  c. at                d. for

                  2. Dave has no money                    his pocket now.

                  a. in                b. on

                  c. at                d. for

                  3. Dave lives                         Paris.

                  a. in                b. on

                  c. at                d. for

                  4. Dave is studying                          Notre Dame University now.

                  a. on               b. at

                  c. for              d. by

                  5. Dave has a scholarship to study                      Harvard University.

                  a. on               b. at

                  c. for              d. by

                  6. Dave will leave Paris                 Boston tomorrow.

                  a. on               b. at

                  c. for              d. by

                  7. Dave will study                Havard University next summer.

                  a. on               b. at

                  c. for              d. by

                  8. Dave will go                     Boston city next summer.

                  a. on               b. at

                  c. for              d. to

                  9. Dave must go to school                         bus  in Boston.

                  a. on               b. at

                  c. for              d. by

                  10. After graduation, Dave will apply for a job                       Apple Corporation.

                  a. on               b. in

                  c. at                d. by

                  Solution:

                  1. c                  2. a                 3. a                 4. b

                  5. b                 6. c                  7. b                 8. d

                  9. d                 10. b

                   

                  Exercise 3: Circle the correct answer (Adj + Prep)

                  1. Dave is very good           English and Maths.

                  a. in                b. on

                  c. at                d. for

                  2. Dave is bad           Physics and Biography.

                  a. in                b. on

                  c. at                d. for

                  3. Dave is so surprised                   the information that he has a scholarship from Havard.

                  a. in                b. on

                  c. at                d. for

                  4. Dave’s family is very pround               him.

                  a. to                b. for

                  c. at                d. of

                  5. This scholarship is very important                 Dave.

                  a. to                b. for

                  c. at                d. with

                  6. Havard is well-known               its high education.

                  a. to                b. for

                  c. at                d. with

                  7. Dave never goes abroad and he’s afraid                   staying on a plane.

                  a. for              b. of

                  c. from           d. with

                  8. Life in Havard may be different                      life in Paris.

                  a. for              b. of

                  c. from           d. with

                  9. Dave is worried                           everything at new school.

                  a. for              b. from

                  c. with            d. about

                  10. Dave must be responsible                  everything he does.

                  a. for              b. from

                  c. with            d. about

                  Solution:

                  1. c                  2. c                  3. c                  4. d

                  5. a                 6. b                 7. b                 8. c

                  9. d                 10. a

                   

                  Exercise 4: Circle the correct answer (V + Prep)

                  1. Dave spends much time            learning English.

                  a. to                b. on

                  c. at                d. no preposition

                  2. Dave often goes               picnic with his friends at weekend.

                  a. to                b. on

                  c. at                d. no preposition

                  3. Dave often goes               swimming with his friends at weekend.

                  a. to                b. on

                  c. at                d. no preposition

                  4. Dave never goes                          shopping.

                  a. to                b. on

                  c. at                d. no preposition

                  5. Dave always looks                      his baby brother when his mother goes out.

                  a. to                b. on

                  c. for              d. after

                  6. Dave often listens                       music when he’s tired.

                  a. to                b. on

                  c. for              d. after

                  7. Dave prefer reading book                    shopping.

                  a. to                b. on

                  c. for              d. after

                  8. Dave spends a lot of time                      book.

                  a. to                b. on

                  c. for              d. after

                  9. This book belongs                      Dave.

                  a. to                b. on

                  c. for              d. after

                  10. Dave will apply                         for a job in Apple Corporation tomorrow.

                  a. to                b. on

                  c. for              d. after

                  Solution:

                  1. b                 2. d                 3. d                 4. d

                  5. d                 6. a                 7. a                 8. b

                  9. a                 10. c

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                    May 132012
                     

                    Verb + preposition:

                    In English,  “Verb + preposition” has different meaning with verb standing alone.

                    Ex: – look          (v)       no relation with      after (pre)

                    –       Look  +  after   =   look after   =   care

                    Ex: – turn (v)                             on/off (pre)

                    –       turn the light on

                    –       turn the light off

                     

                    Structure:

                    S + V + preposition (except “to”) + V-ing/sb/sth

                    Ex:      I succeed in completing all homework.

                     

                    “V + preposition” in use:

                    (sb = somebody  , sth = something )

                    to ask sb for sth

                    to apologize to sb for sth/doing sth: sorry sb for sth

                    to apply for a job

                    to accuse sb of sth/doing sth = to blame sb for sth/doing sth

                    to believe in

                    to belong to sb/sth

                    to break into

                    to break down: damage

                    to concentrate on sth = to pay attention to sth

                    to congratulate sb on sth

                    to depend on

                    to divide sb/sth into sb/sth

                    to explain sth to sb

                    to fill tank with petrol = to be full up

                    to forgive sb for sth

                    to give up

                    to happen to sb/sth

                    to have a look at sb/sth

                    to invite sb to somewhere

                    to laugh at sb

                    to leave HN for HCM: leave HN and go HCM

                    to listen to sb/sth

                    to live on

                    to look at sb/sth

                    to look for

                    to look after = care for = take care of

                    to look forward to (doing sth)

                    to pay sb for sth

                    to prefer sth to sth = would rather sth than sth

                    to prefer doing sth to doing sth = would rather doing sth than doing sth

                    to protect sb/sth from sb/sth

                    to provide/supply sb with sth

                    to rely on = to believe in

                    to smile at sb

                    to succeed in

                    to suffer from sth

                    to spend time/money on doing sth

                    to thank sb for sth

                    to translate an article from English into Vietnamese

                    to wait for sb/sth

                     

                    Common phrases in English:

                    to go for a walk

                    to go for a holiday = go on holiday

                    to go for a picnic = go picnic

                    to go shopping/swimming…

                    to make a decision = decide something

                    to play an important role/part of

                    to give you a hand = help you

                     

                    Exercise: Circle the correct answer

                    1.  I spend a lot of time                   practicing English everyday.

                    a. on                                       b. in

                    c. to                                        d. for

                    2.  Tomorrow, I’ll leave New York                                  Washington.

                    a. on                                       b. in

                    c. to                                        d. for

                    3.  I make a lot of mistakes, but my parents always forgive me                  them.

                    a. on                                       b. in

                    c. to                                        d. for

                    4.  If you want to succeed in business, you shouldn’t                         easily when you meet some troubles.

                    a. give up                              b. gave up

                    c. continue                            d. continued

                    5.  My parents go outside, I must                         my young brother.

                    a. look after                         b. care for

                    c. take care of                      d. all correct

                    6.  Dave is headache, he have suffered                                      this illness all day.

                    a. on                                       b. in

                    c. from                                   d. for

                    7.  Yesterday is my birthday, I invited many friends                                      my house.

                    a. on                                       b. in

                    c. to                                        d. for

                    8.  I have no money, I ask my mom                    some money.

                    a. on                                       b. in

                    c. to                                        d. for

                    9.  If you want to have a good result, you must concentrate                        your studying.

                    a. on                                       b. in

                    c. to                                        d. for

                    10.  Can you translate this article                        Vietnamese?

                    a. on                                       b. in

                    c. onto                                   d. into

                    Solution:

                    1. a                             2. d                             3. d                             4.a

                    5. d                             6. c                              7. c                              8. d

                    9. a                             10. d

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