May 132012
 

Reported Speech:

Reported Speech is used to report what other people say.

Ex:

Normal sentence: Dave said to me I will help you do this exercise tomorrow.

Reported speech:Dave said to me he would help me do that exercise the next day.

 

4 factors in Reported Speech:

1/ Eliminate “…”

Normal sentence with “…”

Reported speech without “…”

2/  Asker and listener:

Normal sentence: Asker “I” and listener “you”

Reported speech: “I” => “he” and “you” => “me”

3/ The tense:

Normal sentence: the future tense “will”

Reported speech: the past tense “would”

4/ Time word and “this, that, these, those”:

Normal sentence: “this” and “tomorrow”

Reported speech: “this” => “that” and “tomorrow” => “the next day”

 

How to turn a normal sentence into a reported speech sentence:

Turn a normal sentence into a reported speech = change 4 factors above

Factor 1: eliminate “…”

Ex: David said to me “I will help you do this exercise tomorrow”.

=>  David said to me ……………………………………………………………… .

 

Factor 2: change “asker” and “listener”

Ex:  Dave said to meI will help you do this exercise tomorrow”.

=> Dave said to me  he  ……….. me ……………………………………….

Dave = “I” => turn “I” into “he”

Me = “you”  => turn “you” into “me”

Subject, Object and Adjpossessive:

Pronoun-S

Pronoun-O

Adjposssesive

I

you

he

she

we

they

it

me

you

him

her

us

them

it

my

your

his

her

our

their

its

Specific situaion:

The name of the man is replaced by “he” or “him”

The name of the woman is replaced by “she” or “her”

 

Factor 3: Turn all tenses into the past tenses.

Ex:  Nam said to me “ I will help you do this exercise tomorrow”.

=> Nam said to me he would help me do ………………………………. .

Future = “will” => Past = “would”

7 past tenses of 7 basic tenses in English:

Tense

Normal

Reported Speech

  Simple FutureSimple PresentPresent ContinuousPresent PerfectSimple PastPast Continuous

Past Perfect

S + will + V0+ OS + V1s,es+ OS + am/is/are + Ving+ OS + has/have + V3ed+ OS + V2ed+ OS + was,were + Ving + O

S + had + V3ed + O

S + would + V0 + OS + V2ed+ OS + was/were + Ving+ OS + had + V3ed+ OS + had + V3ed+ OS + had + been + Ving+ OS + had + V3ed + O

 

Factor 4: time word and “this, that, these, those”…

Ex: Nam said to me “ I will help you do this exercise tomorrow”.

=> Nam said to me he would help me do that exercise the next day.

this => that               and          tomorrow => the next day

Some frequent words:

Now  => then

Tomorrow  => the next day / the following day

Next  => the next

Yesterday  => the day before /  the previous day

Ago  => before: 2 days ago => 2 days before

Last + time  => the + time + before

Here  => there

This => that

These => those

 

Example 2: I said to Dave “I saw you in this coffee shop yesterday”

Step 1: I said to Dave ……………………………………………………………… .

Eliminate “…”

Step 2: I said to Dave I ………… him …………………………………………. .

“I” = “I” => turn “I” into “I”

“Dave”  = “you” => turn “you” into “him”

Step 3: I said to Dave I had seen him ……………………………………… .

Simple Past into Past Perfect => “saw” into “had seen”

Step 4: I said to Dave I had seen him in that coffee shop the day before.

this => “that”    and     “yesterday” => “the day before”

 

Exercise: Turn into Reported Speech with 4 steps above:

1.         Dave said to Mary “I will go to school tomorrow”.

Step 1:                                                                                                                   

Step 2:                                                                                                                   

Step 3:                                                                                                                   

Step 4:                                                                                                                   

2.         Mary said to Dave “I will go to school tomorrow”.

Step 1:                                                                                                                   

Step 2:                                                                                                                   

Step 3:                                                                                                                   

Step 4:                                                                                                                   

3.         Mary said to Dave “I will go to school with you tomorrow”.

Step 1:                                                                                                                   

Step 2:                                                                                                                   

Step 3:                                                                                                                   

Step 4:                                                                                                                   

4.         Mary said to me “I will go to school with you tomorrow”.

Step 1:                                                                                                                   

Step 2:                                                                                                                   

Step 3:                                                                                                                   

Step 4:                                                                                                                   

5.         Mary said to Dave “I went to school with you yesterday”.

Step 1:                                                                                                                   

Step 2:                                                                                                                   

Step 3:                                                                                                                   

Step 4:                                                                                                                   

Solution:

1.         Dave said to Mary “I will go to school tomorrow”.

Step 1: Dave said to Mary                                                                         .

Step 2: Dave said to Mary he                                                                   .

Step 3: Dave said to Mary he would go to school                              .

Step 4: Dave said to Mary I would go to school the next day           .

2.         Mary said to Dave “I will go to school tomorrow”.

Step 1: Mary said to Dave                                                              .

Step 2: Mary said to Dave she                                                       .

Step 3: Mary said to Dave she would go to school                              .

Step 4: Mary said to Dave she would go to school the next day      .

3.         Mary said to Dave “I will go to school with you tomorrow”.

Step 1: Mary said to Dave                                                                                .

Step 2: Mary said to Dave she                                       him                           .

Step 3: Mary said to Dave she would go to school with him                              .

Step 4: Mary said to Dave she would go to school with him the next day .

4.         Mary said to me “I will go to school with you tomorrow”.

Step 1: Mary said to me                                                                                          .

Step 2: Mary said to me she                                               me                              .

Step 3: Mary said to me she would go to school with me                              .

Step 4: Mary said to me she would go to school with me the next day      .

5.         Mary said to Dave “I went to school with you yesterday”.

Step 1: Mary said to Dave                                                                                .

Step 2: Mary said to Dave she                                       him                           .

Step 3: Mary said to Dave she had gone to school with him                                .

Step 4: Mary said to Dave she had gone to school with him the day before .

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