May 112012

The most important structure in English:

S          +          V        +          O

In English:

S : is a thing or a person to cause action

V : is an action caused by S

O : is a thing or a person affected by the action V

Ex:   I          eat      apple

–     S          V          O

“I” = S : a person to cause action “eat”

“eat” = V : action is caused by S

“apple” = O : thing is affected by the action V = eat


1. Subject (S):

S is a Noun (N) or  a Pronoun (ProN)

a. Noun is Subject:

Noun is a word to name a person, a thing … in a sentence.

Ex: My son         goes to school everyday.

–    Noun-S

b. Pronouns is Subject:

I                                   you

He                               she

We                              they

It                                 name (John, David, …)

Ex:  She       eats      apple.

–    Pronoun-S


2. Verb (V):

    3 types of Verb in English:

Vmain is a verb to cause action in a sentence. The sentence has no meaning without Vmain

Vmodal is a verb to supplement the meaning for Vmain. The sentence still has meaning without Vmodal

V= be, do, have can be Vmain , Vauxiliary or Vmodal

Ex:  I speak English.

–    Vmain = “speak” , without “speak”, we don’t understand this sentence

“I English”

Ex:  I can speak English

Vmodal = “can” to supplement the meaning for Vmain =“speak”, without Vmodal, we still understand this sentence

“I speak English”

Ex:  John is eating apple now. (is = Vmodal)

–    John is a student. (is = Vmain)


 3. Object (O):

Object (O) is a person or a thing caused by Verb.

     a. Noun is Object:

Ex:  I   eat           apple       everyday


     b. Pronoun is Object:

Pronoun-S                                           Pronoun-O

I                       =                                  me

you                 =                                  you

he                   =                                  him

she                  =                                  his

we                  =                                  us

they                =                                  them

it                     =                                  it


Pronoun-S can’t replace for Pronoun-O, though they have the same meaning.

Ex: Correct:          He      loves      her

–  Incorrect:         He       loves     she


Exercise: Find the incorrect word and correct it

1/ I       love     she

2/ She   loves    I

3/ Her   loves    me

4/ Me    love     her

5/ He    loves   she.

6/ She   loves   he.

7/ John loves   I

8/ Me    love    John

9/ Her    is   a student

10/ Him   is   a student.


1/ I        love     her

2/ She   loves    me

3/ She   loves    me

4/ I        love     her

5/ He     loves   her

6/ She   loves   him

7/ John loves   me

8/        love    John

9/ She    is   a student

10/ He   is   a student.

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